Embriologia e Histologia Animal - Biologia - Sem Ramos - Especialidades

ECTS / Credit Units
Year: 1 / 2º Semestre
Plan: 2015/16
Scientific Area: BIO
Level: Básico

Semestral Hour Load

Theorical: 32.00
Pratical and Laboratorial: 33.00


Assigned Internship Hours:
Assigned Projects Hours:
Assigned Fieldwork Hours:
Assigned Study Hours:
Assigned Evaluation Hours:

Degree having this Course

Degree - Branch Degree Plan Year
Biologia - Sem Ramos - Especialidades 2015/16

Teaching Staff

António Manuel Dias Brehm
António Manuel Dias Brehm

Responsável pelas Pautas
Ensino teórico
Ensino prático e laboratorial

Course Information

Course Objectivs

  1. General considerations

The praxis of recent years has shown that the methodology of teaching is perfectly suited to what we want the students to know at the end of the course. This is a basic course whose content is particularly objective and systematic. At the end of the course, students need to be able to identify any histological structure in the observation of any organ. The first theoretical part of the course is so systematic and descriptive of the various types of cells and tissues. The second part involves the physiological component as perceived by integrating organs and physiological systems. In the practical part the students will have to apply their knowledge about differences of cells and tissues in order to identify them correctly in complex structures. It is intended that at the end of the course, the student which will be a asked to correctly identify tissues and structures in a histological section of a given organ. The student will have to unambiguously identify which and how the various types of cells and tissues are located. That is, from a ?loose" and very tissue-specific information gathered at the beginning of the course, the student will reach comprehensive and integrated information of the tissues on different organs. Accordingly, it is expected that students can identify histological sections along the same system and connect them to the specific functions that have all over the system itself. We are therefore in the presence of a functional histology. For example, the general structure along the gastro-intestinal tract involves recognition of typical histological structures including the mucosa, submucosa, the muscle, the serosa, etc.. along the whole tract. The observation of sections along the system, (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large colon, etc.) enables the perception of changes as the architecture of the tissues will change according to their function.


The Program

  1. Identify the various stages of egg development in protostomes and deuterostomes.
  2. Identify the various stages of embryonic development in echinoderms, amphibians, birds and mammals.
  3. Knowing the phenomenon of embryogenesis of organs and systems as well as the relations with its histology.
  4. Knowing the morphological characteristics of the various tissues and their interrelationships in the structures present in different organs and systems in particular in mammals.
  5. Recognize the most common histopathological changes in the various tissues and organs.
  6. Mastering the practice of histological preparation of tissues to obtain histological slides.
  7. Know and identify various types of microtome and their functions. Know the various types of dyes (acidic, basic and vital well as Romanowsky) in use in histology.


Obtaining the sample and tissue preparation for cutting under the microtome; various types of microtome. Acidic, basic and vital dyes. Romanowsky dyes. The type of egg. The segmentation and embryonic development in some animals and in humans. Tissue differentiation and its causes. Epithelial tissue. Specialized tissues and unspecialized connective tissue; adipose, cartilaginous and bone tissue. Blood and lymphatic tissue. The muscle and nervous tissues. Placenta and umbilical cord. Embryogenesis and development of the cardiovascular system, body cavities, upper and lower limbs; osteogenesis. Blood cells and their differentiation. Embryogenesis and histology of integumentary system, skeletal, muscular, nervous, respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular and lymphatic, urinary, male and female reproductive, endocrine organs and organs of senses. Changes in embryonic development due to the action of genes; notions of Teratology.

Evaluation Criteria

Lectures in a expositive manner. Occasionally groups of students investigate a topic and pass a presentation previously worked out with the teacher. Students are encouraged to make use of materials from the web. Laboratory practices consist in observing slides under the microscope, drawing and labeling of structures. Seminars are discussions of suggested topics throughout the semester. The frequencies of the PL consists in the observation of 10 blades for which it is required to identify the structure of tissues and particular features of the tissues. A complete legend is also mandatory. Each student has 7 minutes to make the evaluation of each blade. Continuous assessment: T and PL components are spread over 2 times of independent review and subject to appeal. Each T and PL are worth 30% of final grade. PL= 20%. Minimum score in each fraction of 9.5.

Program Resume (get program detail)

Main Bibliography

Michael H. Ross, Gordon I. Kaye & Wojciech Pawlina (2002) - Histology a Text and Atlas, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Fourth Edition

P. R. Wheater, H. G. Burkitt & V. G. Daniels ( 1987) Functional Histology, A Text and color Atlas, Churchill Livingstone, First Edition

UCPel (2009) Atlas de Histologia Médica

Allen L. Bell (1999) - Human Histology, University of New England,

Ronald W Dudek (2001) - High Yield Embryology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Second Edition

Atlas of Human Embryology,

The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, (2011), UNSW Embryology, An educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, Version 9.0 University of Fribourg, Lausanne and Bern (Switzerland) (2012)

Other Biographical Sources / Support Documents

Student Support

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