Subject: Plant Anatomy and Organogenesis

Scientific Area:



65 Hours

Number of ECTS:




Overall objectives:

1 - To gain an understanding of the formation and development of organs and the internal structure of vascular plants from the embryo to the adult plant.
2 - To consider the development and phylogeny of plant tissues and organs.
3 - To know how to interpret the basic pattern of plant growth from meristems and understand the relationships between primary growth and secondary growth.
4 - To discuss the importance and function of plant structures.
5 - To relate the structure of particular types of cells and tissues to their functions.
6 - To compare structural differences among different organs and taxa of vascular plants.
7 - To distinguish anatomical features that allow plants to live and adapt to their habitats.
8 - To provide skills in specimen preparation for microscopic observation.


1 - The importance of plants. Anatomical knowledge and economic exploitation. 
2 - Plant development. Germination: external and internal factos; dormancy.  Embryogenesis: monocotyledons and dicotyledons. 
3 - Histology. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of cells and tissues: Meristems; Parenchyma; Collenchyma; Sclerenchyma; Epidermis; Vascular cambium; Xylem; Phloem; Periderm.
4 - Root anatomy: types of roots, characteristics and function, primary and secondary structure.
5 - Stem anatomy. Primary structure: gymnosperms, monocotyledons and dicotyledons; relative distribution of the tissue systems; secondary structure; anomalous growth; Stele theory. 
6 - Leaf anatomy: ontogeny; epidermis and mesophyll; vascular system; leaves of dicotyledons, monocotyledons and gymnosperms:histological and anatomical characters; Variations in the structure of the mesophyll. 
7 - Anatomy of flower, fruit and seed.


 Beck CB , 2010 , An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development. Plant Anatomy for the Twenty­first Century.  , Cambridge University Press
Bowes BG, Mauseth JD , 2008 , Plant Structure: a colour guide. 2ª ed.  , London: Manson Publishing
Cutler DF, Botha T, Stevenson DW , 2008 , Plant Anatomy: an applied approach , Oxford:Blackwell Publishing
Dickison WC , 2000 , Integrative Plant Anatomy.  , Academic Press, California
Esau K , 1977 , Anatomy of Seed Plants. 2ªed ,  John Willey & Sons, New York
Rudall PJ , 2007 , Anatomy of Flowering Plants. An Introduction to Structure and Development. 3ª ed. , Cambridge University Press

Assesssment methods and criteria:

Classification Type: Quantitativa (0-20)

Evaluation Methodology:
Teaching methods include: ­ lectures supported by PowerPoint presentations, where syllabus material will be presented and explained using examples; laboratory work designed to illustrate topics covered in lectures, through specimen preparation and observation of permanent slides followed by a sketch / drawing of them in the laboratory notebook. Students are evaluated as follows: ­ two written exams covering topics and theory concepts (60% of the final grade) and one laboratory exam (40% of the final grade).