Subject: Macaronesian Flora

Scientific Area:



68 Hours

Number of ECTS:




Overall objectives:

1 - Basic knowledge on the history and development of botanical knowledge, since the first descriptions (XVth century) to the XIX century naturalists, as well on the main authors of Macaronesian flora.
2 - To integrate paleobiogeography, biogeography and floristic knowledge.
3 - To recognise the main elements of Macaronesian flora.
4 - To recognise the evolutionary relationships and colonisation models of the Macaronesian flora.
5 - To be able to correlate the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos flora with their ecology.
6 - To know the floristic diversity patterns in the Macaronesia (with special emphasis on endemic and exotic invading flora) and their biogeography, as well as landscape historical use and hemeroby .
7 - To be able to use distinct Floras and other bibliographic resources.
8 - To be able to collect, prepare, identify and herborise any specimen of the Macaronesia Flora.


1 - Introduction to the study of Macaronesian Flora. Main bibliographic sources. Accessory bibliography and supporting documents. Historical perspective of the study of Macaronesian flora. i. Chroniclers, naturalists and other pre-Linean references; ii. Chroniclers of the 15th and 16th century. iii. Gaspar Frutuoso. iv. Hans Sloane (1660-1753). v. Francis Masson (1741-1805). vi. The voyages of Capt. James Cook (1728-1779). vii. 19th century naturalists in Madeira (19th century botanical scientific expeditions, 2. Robert Brown (1773? 1858). 3. Richard Thomas Lowe (1802-1874). 4. Philip B. Webb (1793? 1854). 5. Christian Ferdinand Hochstetter (1787-1860). 6. Moritz August Seubert (1818-1878). 7. Hewett Cottrell Watson (1804-1881). 8. William Trelease (1857-1945). 9. Auguste Chevalier (1873-1956). d. Macaronesian Lists and Floras. Origin of the Flora of Macaronesia. Geological and paleo-Macaronesian origin. Biogeography of the Madeira and Macaronesian archipelago. Tertiary Paleoendemic forest flora. temperate Siberian, continental Neo-Mediterranean flora, anthropogenic flora.
2 - Synopsis of the fern families. Lycopodiaceae, Selaginellaceae, Equisetaceae, Botrychiaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Osmundaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Culcitaceae, Dicksoniaceae, Cyatheaceae, Hypolepidaceae, Polypodiaceae, Sinopteridaceae, Hemionitidaceae (Adiantaceae s.l.), Pteridaceae, Adiantaceae (s.s.), Thelypteridaceae, Aspleniaceae, Aspidiaceae, Athyriaceae, Davalliaceae, Elaphoglossaceae, Oleandraceae, Blechnaceae. Macaronesia fern endemicity.
3 - Synopsis of the Pinopsida families. s.l. (Spermatophyta, Coniferophytina). a. Pinaceae b. Taxodiaceae c. Cupressaceae d. Taxaceae
4 - Synopsis of the Gnetopsida families (Spermatophyta, Cycadophytina). a. Ephedraceae
5 - Synopsis of the Magnoliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). a. Magnoliidae i. Lauraceae ii. Aristolochiaceae iii. Berberidaceae iv. Ranunculaceae v. Papaveraceae vi. Phytolaccaceae vii. Nyctaginaceae viii. Aizoaceae ix. Portulaccaceae x. Basellaceae xi. Cactaceae xii. Caryophyllaceae xiii. Amaranthaceae xiv. Chenopodiaceae xv. Polygonaceae xvi. Plumbaginaceae
6 - Synopsis of the Magnoliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). b. Hammamelidae i. Fagaceae ii. Myricaceae
7 - Synopsis of the Magnoliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). c. Dillenidae i. Theaceae ii. Hypericaceae iii. Clethraceae iv. Ericaceae v. Sapotaceae vi. Myrsinaceae vii. Primulaceae viii. Violaceae ix. Passifloraceae x. Salicaceae xi. Tamaricaceae xii. Frankeniaceae xiii. Cucurbitaceae xiv. Brassicaceae xv. Resedaceae xvi. Cistaceae xvii. Malvaceae xviii. Urticaceae xix. Euphorbiaceae xx. Thymelaeceae xxi. Melastomataceae
8 - Synopsis of the Magnoliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina).. d. Rosidae i. Crassulaceae ii. Saxifragaceae iii. Rosaceae iv. Lythraceae v. Onagraceae vi. Myrtaceae vii. Sapindaceae viii. Fabaceae ix. Aceraceae x. Tropaeolaceae xi. Rutaceae xii. Simaroubaceae xiii. Anacardiaceae xiv. Linaceae xv. Oxalidaceae xvi. Geraniaceae xvii. Balsaminaceae xviii. Zygophyllaceae xix. Polygalaceae xx. Celastraceae xxi. Aquifoliaceae xxii. Rhamnaceae xxiii. Elaegnaceae xxiv. Proteaceae xxv. Vitaceae
9 - Synopsis of the Magnoliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). e. Cornidae i. Hydrangeaceae ii. Araliaceae iii. Apiaceae iv. Pittosporaceae v. Caprifoliaceae vi. Dipsacaceae
10 - Synopsis of the Magnoliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). f. Asteridae i. Campanulaceae ii. Asteraceae
11 - Synopsis of the Magnoliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). g. Lamiidae i. Gentianaceae ii. Rubiaceae iii. Apocynaceae iv. Asclepiadaceae v. Solanaceae vi. Convolvulaceae vii. Hydrophyllaceae viii. Boraginaceae ix. Oleaceae x. Scrophulariaceae xi. Globulariaceae xii. Plantaginaceae xiii. Bignoniaceae xiv. Acanthaceae xv. Verbenaceae xvi. Lamiaceae xvii. Callitrichaceae
12 - Synopsis of the Liliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). a. Liliidae i. Liliaceae (incl. Agapanthaceae, Alliaceae, Aloaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Phormiaceae, Ruscaceae) ii. Iridaceae iii. Orchidaceae iv. Agavaceae v. Amaryllidaceae vi. Smilacaceae vii. Dioscoreaceae
13 - Synopsis of the Liliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). b. Commelinidae i. Musaceae ii. Zingiberaceae iii. Cannaceae iv. Commelinaceae v. Juncaceae vi. Cyperaceae vii. Poaceae
14 - Synopsis of the Liliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). c. Arecidae i. Arecaceae
15 - Synopsis of the Liliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). d. Alismatidae i. Alismataceae ii. Potamogetonaceae iii. Ruppiaceae
16 - Synopsis of the Liliopsida families (Spermatophyta, Magnoliophytina). e. Aridae i. Araceae ii. Lemnaceae
17 - Lists (checklists) diversity and archipelago's patterns. Biogeography. Preparing checklists. The Madeira Checklist: (a) taxonomic and nomenclatural criteria; (b) Taxonomic categories, distribution, endemicity and origin; (c) 2008-2020 Update of the Madeira archipelago plant Checklist (i. taxonomic and nomenclature updates; ii. The description of new endemic taxa; iii. taxa recognition; Iv. New references to alien plant taxa); d. On the use of Checklist (i. Real occurrence and cumulative data, ghost taxa and evolution of historical knowledge); e. The Madeira Vascular Flora in numbers; f. Comparing the Macaronesia archipelagos and islands (i. Colonisation status. ii. Number and density of endemic plants. iii. Historical knowledge and pr-descriptive extinction. iv. Anthropocene and biogeography models, Linnean Shortfall versus Hookerian Shortfall).
18 - Floristic diversity in dry inframediterranean plant communities/complexes, the Madeiran oleaster series, Mayteno umbellatae-Oleo maderensis sigmetum, secondary vegetation of the Euphorbietum piscatoriae and halophylle vegetation, Calendulo maderensis-Suaedetum verae
19 - Floristic diversity in Suaedo verae-Limonietum callibotry, Frankenio-Astydamion latifoliae, Loto salvagensis-Elytrigietum junceae, plant communities/complexes,
20 - Floristic diversity in plant communities/complexes of the series Helichryso melaleuci-Sideroxylo marmulanae sigmetum
21 - Floristic diversity in plant communities/complexes of the dry laurisilva series, Semele androgynae-Apollonietum barbujanae sigmetum.
22 - Floristic diversity in plant communities/complexes of the humid laurisilva series, Clethro arboreae-Ocoteo foetentis sigmetum.
23 - Floristic diversity in plant communities/complexes of the high altitude tree heath forest, Polysticho falcinelli- Ericetum arboreae, and Argyranthemo montani-Ericetum maderensis plant communities.


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Jardim, R. & Menezes de Sequeira, M. , 2008 , Lista das plantas vasculares (Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta). Pp. 179-208 in Borges, P.A.V., Abreu, C., Aguiar, A.M.F., Carvalho, P., Jardim, R., Melo, I., Oliveira, P., Sérgio, C., Serrano, A.R.M. & Vieira, P. (eds.) (2008). A list of the terrestri , Direcção Regional do Ambiente da Madeira and Universidade dos Açores, Funchal and Angra do Heroísmo,
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Assesssment methods and criteria:

Classification Type: Quantitativa (0-20)

Evaluation Methodology:
Teaching methods include: ­ Lectures supported by PowerPoint presentations, where syllabus material will be presented and explained using examples; ­ Field work covering most of Madeira and Porto Santo (or Desertas or Selvagens )ecosystems and their vascular plant diversity. An herbarium prepared by the student (groups of 2 to 3 students are admissible and number of specimens varies, accordingly between 250 and 300) is prepared in two stages (the first to be delivered until April, the second before the end of the semester. This phased delivery of the herbarium allows a better time management of autonomous work by the students. The evaluation process included a theoretical test (or exam) (35% of the final grade, minimum grade 9,5 ), the herbarium (40% of the final grade, minimum grade 10, not recoverable in the exam) and a practical test (exam) (25% of the final grade, minimum grade 9,5).