Subject: Laboratory Techniques I

Scientific Area:



94 Hours

Number of ECTS:




Overall objectives:

1.2 - Acquire basic knowledge about simple techniques to use across all units of the course either in terms of understanding of the phenomena that are at the base of these techniques, or their practical application.
1.3 - Learn and apply concepts of safety in the laboratory.
1.4 - Acquire skills in handling material and equipment.
2.1 - To recognize and learn to handle basic laboratory material To be able to assemble a simple installation from the written instructions
2.2 - To be able to recognize the risks and find solutions to work safely
2.3 - To collect and interpret information from the labelling of chemicals
2.4 - To develop concentration, critical spirit and autonomy
2.5 - To work as a team outside of the usual social group
2.6 - To relate the knowledge acquired from the phenomena observed in everyday life. To plan, execute, and propose strategies, interpret experimental results and communicate them


1 - Lab Material and Safety
2 - Hazardous substances. Labelling
3 - Measurement errors. Precision and accuracy. Significant figures
4 - Measurement of masses and volumes. Density determination
5 - Calculation of concentrations
6 - Mass transfer Operations
7 - Solid-liquid extraction, continuous and discontinuous Extractors. Soxhlet. Factors extraction efficiency
8 - Liquid-liquid Extraction: Simple vs. multiple
9 - Adsorption. Types of adsorbents. Drying of solvents
10 - Moment Transfer
11 - Agitation, filtration, centrifugation
12 - Heat transfer. Heating and cooling. Radiation, conduction and convection. Heat and temperature. Scales and temperature measurement
13 - Simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Phase change. Diagram of Phases
14 - Precipitation. Nucleation and crystal growth. Saturated and supersaturated solutions. Solubility product
15 - Crystallization. Polymorphism, mixed solvents
16 - Sublimation. water: freeze-drying
17 - Distillation: Simple, fractional, steam distillation, azeotropic and low pressure. Raoult's law. Rotary evaporator


SIMOES, JOSE A MARTINHO , Vários Guia do Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica , Lidel
Zubrick, James W , The organic chem lab survival manual , John Wiley and Sons
A. J. L. O. Pombeiro , Técnicas e Operações Unitárias em Química Laboratorial Edição/reimpressão ,
Cordeiro, N, Castilho PC, Câmara,J , 2013 , Técnicas Laboratoriais Elementares , Universidade da Madeira

Assesssment methods and criteria:

Classification Type: Quantitativa (0-20)

Evaluation Methodology:
This UC comprises of 24 hours of lectures spread over 16 weeks and 70 h of lab practice, spread over 14 weeks (2 blocks of 2,5 hours per week). In the theoretical classes, the professor makes use of multimedia projection, white board and demonstration with various materials. The practical classes are laboratory sessions where groups of students apply the techniques under study to concrete cases. The filling in of post-lab questionnaires ("reports") is made at the end of each session or group of sessions Evaluation in this UC consists of: a) written tests (2) weight of 30%); The minimum score on each test is of 8 values. b) continuous evaluation in the practical classes, based on the development and delivery of questionnaires, preparations of each work, performance during sessions, elaboration and timely delivery of reports and response to proposed application exercises. All these elements are grouped in the Lab Manual (weight of 70%).