Subject: Study of the Environment III

Scientific Area:

Environment Studies

63 Hours

Number of ECTS:

6 ECTS

Language:

Portuguese

# Overall objectives:

1 - Develop the ability to systematically investigate and organize knowledge about physics and astronomy;
2 - Understand the interdisciplinary character of experimental science teaching;
3 - To know basic concepts and principles of physics and astronomy, associating them with everyday phenomena and technology;
4 - Recognize the contribution of physics to technological progress and improvement of quality of life;
5 - Understand the interrelationship between physics and astronomy and other sciences, emphasizing their interdependence in the explanation of natural phenomena;
6 - Develop scientific curiosity;
7 - Deepen critical thinking, using various sources of information to explain the physical phenomenon;
8 - Identify geophysical elements of the environment and their interrelationships;
9 - Perform practical activities that mobilize knowledge of physics and astronomy, making them compatible with the cognitive development of students and the OCEPE and the 1st and 2nd CEB programs.

# Syllabus:

1 - Introduction, 1.1 Preliminary Remarks, 1.2 Why study physics?, 1.3 Systems of units, 1.3.1 Measuring, 1.3.2 Quantities and fundamental units, 1.3.3 Prefixes, 1.3.4 Conversion of units, 1.4 Dimensional analysis, 1.5 Mathematical operations with units, 1.6 Scientific notation, 1.7 Order of magnitude of a number, 1.8 Percentage, 1.9 Variation, 1.9.1 Absolute change, 1.9.2 Relative change, 1.10 Approximate calculations and calculations without a calculator, 1.11 Average, 1.12 Measurement errors, 1.13 Precision vs Exactness, 1.14 Significant figures (optional), 1.15 Scalars and vectors, 1.15.1 Graphical representation of a vector; 1.15.2 Components of a vector; 1.15.3 Addition of vectors by the analytical method; 1.15.4 Addition of vectors by the graphical method;
2 - Mechanics, 2.1 Introductory concepts 2.2 Straight-line motion, 2.2 Motion in a plane (optional), 2.4 Newton's laws, 2.5 The law of universal gravitation, 2.5.1 Force of gravity, 2.5.2 Kepler's laws, 2.6 Friction force, 2.7 Work, 2.8 Energy, 2.9 Hooke's law, 2.10 Center of mass, 2.11 Torque, 2.12 Static conditions for rigid bodies;
3 - Fluids; 3.1 Volume and density; 3.2 Impulse, Archimedes principle and buoyancy; 3.3 pressure; 3.3.1 Variation of pressure with depth; 3.4 Pascal's principle; 3.4.1 Hydraulic press; 3.5 Fluid dynamics; 3.5.1 Equation of continuity; 3.5.2 Bernoulli Equation; 3.6 fluids in biological systems;
4 - Thermodynamics, 4.1 Temperature and law zero of thermodynamics, 4.1.1 Temperature scales, 4.2 Ideal gases, 4.2.1 Ideal gas law, 4.2.2 Dalton's law, 4.3 Heat, 4.4 Heat flow, 4.4.1 Conduction, 4.4.2 Convection, 4.4.3 Radiation and blackbody, 4.5 First law of thermodynamics, 4.6 Second law of thermodynamics;
5 - Oscillations and waves (optional, dependent on number of weeks in semester), 5.1 Oscillatory phenomena, 5.1.1 Simple harmonic motion, 5.1.2 Simple pendulum, 5.1.3 Forced oscillations and resonance, 5.2 Wave Phenomena, 5.2.1 Wave terminology, 5.2.2 Types of waves in nature, 5.2.3 Superposed waves, 5.3 Sound waves, 5.3.1 Doppler Effect, 5.3.2 Echo, reverberation and resonance, 5.3.3 Sound intensity, 5.3.4 Hearing - General characteristics and hearing problems;
6 - Optics, 6.1 Light and its speed, 6.2 Reflection and refraction, 6.2.1 Reflection, 6.2.2 Refraction, 6.3 Dispersion, 6.4 Mirrors, lenses and optical instruments, 6.5 Interference, 6.6 Diffraction, 6.7 The human eye - General characteristics and visual problems;
7 - Electricity; 7.1 electric charge; 7.1.1 Quantization; 7.1.2 Conservation; 7.1.3 Test charge; 7.2 Coulomb's Law; 7.3 Electric field (optional); 7.4 Superposition principle; 7.5 Electric current; 7.6 Potential difference; 7.6.1 Battery; 7.7 Resistivity; 7.8 Resistance; 7.8.1 7.8.1 Combination of resistors (optional); 7.8.2 Color coding of resistors (optional); 7.8.3 Ammeters, Voltmeters and Ohmmeters (optional); 7.9 Electric power; 7.10 Brief notions about alternating current; 7.11 Electric shocks;
8 - Magnetism, 8.1 Magnets, 8.2 Earth magnetism, 8.3 Magnetic properties of matter: ferromagnetism, diamagnetism and paramagnetism
9 - Solar System, 9.1 The sun , 9.2 The planets within the solar system, 9.3 Dwarf planets and small bodies, 9.4 The Solar System Model (to scale), 9.5 The magnetic field of the Earth and other planets and the Sun, 9.6 The acceleration of gravity.
10 - The system Earth-Moon and Sun, 10.1 The shape of the Earth, 10.2 Phases of the Moon, 10.3 The seasons on Earth and other planets,10.4 Tides, 10.5 Kepler's Laws.
11 - Stars and constellations, 11.1 The different types of stars, 11.2 Formation and evolution of stars, 11.3 Binary star systems, 11.4 Exoplanets, 11.5 What is a constellation, 11.6 The distance to the stars, 11.7 The size of the stars
12 - Real and apparent motion of the celestial bodies, 12.1 Movement of the Sun throughout the day and throughout the year, 12.2 Cardinal Points , 12.3 The North Star and the Earth rotation axis, 12.4 Real and apparent motion of the stars, 12.5 Real and apparent motion of the planets, 12.6 Brief introduction to coordinate systems.
13 - Our galaxy and other galaxies, 13.1 Structure and composition of our Galaxy, 13.2 Nebulae and star clusters, 13.3 Other galaxies, 13.4 Dark matter and dark energy.
14 - Exploration of Space, 14.1 Propagation of sound waves and electromagnetic waves (in the atmosphere and in space), 14.2 Decomposition of light and spectroscopy, 14.3 Light sources in the Universe and different types of telescopes 14.4 Telescopes and accessories , 14.5 Exploitation of resources in space, 14.6 Light Pollution, 14.7 Brief history of space exploration, 14.8 Different kinds of satellites, 14.9 The Astronomical Observatory in Madeira.

# Literature/Sources:

Almeida, G. , 2003 , Observar o céu profundo , Lisboa: Plátano Editora
Almeida, G. , 2004 , Roteiro do céu , Lisboa: Plátano
Augusto, P. et al. , 2011 , O Universo , Funchal: Universidade da Madeira
Bloomfield, L. A. , 2010 , How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life , NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Coletta, V. P. , 1995 , College Physics , WCB: McGraw-Hill
Deus, J. D., Pimenta, M., Noronha, A., Peña, T. & Brogueira, P. , 2000 , Introdução à Física , NY: McGraw-Hill
Green, S. F. & Jones, M. H. , 2004 , An Introduction to the Sun and Stars , Cambridge University Press.
Halliday, D., Resnick, R. & Walker, J. , 2001 , Fundamentals of physics , NY: John Wiley & Sons
Levenson, E. , 1994 , Teaching children about physical science: ideas and activities every teacher and parent can use , NY: TAB Books
McBride, N. & Gilmour, I. , 2004 , An Introduction to the Solar System , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Serway, R. A. & Jewett, J. W. , 2003 , Physics for Scientists and Engineers , Boston: Brooks Cole

# Assesssment methods and criteria:

Classification Type: Quantitativa (0-20)

Evaluation Methodology:
The contents are initially developed in a theoretical and practical way through lectures, open to questions and discussion. These will allow the basic framework necessary for the understanding of physics in everyday experiences. These classes will be complemented by more practical classroom and field activities, followed by presentation and discussion of experimental activities. Through the development of a group investigation, students define a research theme, making observations, recording and analyzing the results to draw a conclusion. This work will enable them to develop core competencies for understanding experimental science teaching. The evaluation will consist of two individual written tests related to the theoretical component (50%), the delivery of a laboratory notebook with the activities performed (25%) and the oral presentation and presentation of group research work (25%).