Subject: Biodiversity Conservation

Scientific Area:



67 Hours

Number of ECTS:




Overall objectives:

1 - To recognise the distinct levels of biological diversity.
2. - Understand the historical evolution of nature conservation and biodiversity.
3. - To recognise distinct approaches to conservation, from species to ecosystems.
4. - The mechanisms of conservation, from species to habitat conservation, the CE habitats Directive and Natura 2000 Net
5. - Recognition of European protected species and habitats, an emphasis on Macaronesia
6. - Recognising the main invasive alien species, effects on ecosystems, control and eradication.
7. - To understand the basic biological knowledge on an Environmental impact assessment.
8. - To be able to analyse Biodiversity conservation projects, with an emphasis on LIFE Projects.
9. - To develop the capacity to recognise the distinct tools for nature and biodiversity conservation and to develop a critical view on the application of biodiversity conservation politics.


1. - Biological diversity versus biodiversity
2 - Historical approach, from the XVIII to the XX century, from game reserves to the first modern protected areas
3 - Lists of protected species, their evolution and the problematic of Red lists and red data books.
4 - IUCN and the application of criteria.
5 - Species or ecosystems conservation, the CE habitats Directive, lists of species and Ecosystems, the Natura 2000 Network
6 - Invading species, basic concepts, Portuguese, European and international legislation and conventions.
7 - Case studies of conservation directed to species or ecosystems, and programs/projects directed to control and eradication of invading species.
8 - Protected areas, legislation and evolution of their conservation status.
9 - SLOSS, from the XX century natural parks to the concept of micro-reserve and the Natura 2000 Network.
10 - Anthropocentric approaches, tourism and carrying capacity, the establishment of conservation priorities.


Primack R. , 2002. , Essentials of Conservation Biology , Sinauer associates, Sunderland
Sutherland W , 1998 , Conservation science and action. , Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
Tilman D , 2000 , Causes, consequences and ethics of biodiversity ,
Azam, C. S., Gigot, G., Witte, I., & Schatz, B. , 2016 , National and subnational Red Lists in European and Mediterranean countries: current state and use for conservation , Endangered Species Research, 30, 255-266.
Bilz, M., Kell, S.P., Maxted, N. and Lansdown, R.V. , 2011 , European Red List of Vascular Plants , Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union
Bland, L.M., Keith, D.A., Miller, R.M., Murray, N.J. and Rodríguez, J.P. , 2016 , Guidelines for the application of IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Categories and Criteria, Version 1.0 , Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. ix + 94pp.
Costas Kadis, Costas A. Thanos & Emilio Laguna Lumbreras , 2013 , Plant Micro-Reserves: From Theory To Practice. Experiences gained from EU LIFE and other related projects , Utopia Publishing, Athens
EC , Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora ,
EC , DIRECTIVA 97/62/CE DO CONSELHO de 27 de Outubro de 1997 relativa à adaptação ao progresso científico e técnico da Directiva 92/43/CEE relativa à preservação dos habitats naturais e da fauna e da flora selvagens ,
Fiedler P., Jain J. , 1992 , Conservation Biology. The Theory and Pratice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management , Chapman and Hall
García Criado, M., Väre, H., Nieto, A., Bento Elias, R., Dyer, R., Ivanenko, Y., Ivanova, D., Lansdown, R., Molina, J.A., Rouhan, G., Rumsey, F., Troia, A., Vrba, J. and Christenhusz, M.J.M. , 2017 , European Red List of Lycopods and Ferns , Brussels, Belgium: IUCN
Groom, M. et al. , 2006 , Principles of Conservation Biology. 3rd ed , Sinauer associates, Sunderland
IUCN , 2018 , The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-1. ,>. Downloaded on 05 July 2018
IUCN Red List Committee , 2013 , The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species? Strategic Plan 2013 - 2020. Version 1.0. ,
IUCN , 2012 , Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0 , Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. iii + 41pp.
IUCN , 2012 , UCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition , Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. iv + 32pp
Mace G. , 2004 , The role of taxonomy in species conservation , Phyl. Trans R. Soc. Lond B.
Teixeira, C., Sequeira, E., Lacerda, F., Gonçalves, G., Pinto,N., Pedroso, N. & Sarmento, N. , 2008 , 60 anos do Movimento Ambientalista, 60 Anos pela Conservação da Natureza em Portugal; & 60 anos pela Natureza em Portugal , Liga para a Protecção da Natureza
Liga para a Protecção da Natureza , 2008 , Conservação da Natureza em Portugal; & 60 anos pela Natureza em Portugal , Liga para a Protecção da Natureza

Assesssment methods and criteria:

Classification Type: Quantitativa (0-20)

Evaluation Methodology:
Lectures: Lectures are predominantly expository, and concepts, principles and methods of biodiversity conservation, are integrated with taxonomy, ecology, evolutionary Biology and Genetics. Theoretical-practical classes: case studies, based on published data (articles and reports) are analysed in order to promote a guided discussion, including discussions and debates of opposing ideas and approaches. Fieldwork: students will observe in situ, various projects and nature conservation programs. Evaluation: 2 tests (35% each) and a group work with report and presentation (20 +10%).